Since the early 1990s, Israel has restricted Palestinian movement in the West Bank. Prior to the second intifada, the restrictions were primarily intended to prevent Palestinians from entering Israel and East Jerusalem. During the second intifada, Israel established dozens of checkpoints and hundreds of physical obstructions inside the West Bank, including dirt mounds, concrete blocks, and trenches, and began construction of the Separation Barrier and its crossing gates. These restrictions are unprecedented in the history of the Israeli occupation in terms of the scope, duration, and severity of harm to the daily lives of Palestinians living in the West Bank.
In 2009, Israel reduced the number of checkpoints and obstructions in the West Bank, but as of February 2012, B'Tselem still counted 98 checkpoints in the West Bank, including:
16 military posts in the area of Hebron in which Israeli settlements have been established (H-2), which restrict Palestinian movement into and out of the area.
41 positions serve as the last checkpoint before entry into Israel, although most are located a few kilometers east of the Green Line or the entrance to Jerusalem.